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Anemia in Children and Adolescents: Frequently Asked Questions of Parents


Anemia is a disease in which the body's red blood cells drop below the normal level for the child's age. It can cause the child to look pale and feel irritable, tired, or weak. Although these symptoms may worry you, anemia is generally easy to treat, especially if caught early. In addition, it is necessary that parents are aware of the measures they can take to prevent this disease.

Because rapid growth is likely a cause of the disease, the first year of life and adolescence are two age groups when infants and children are most prone to anemia.

What is anemia?

Anemia means that there are not enough red blood cells in the body. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a special pigment protein that makes it possible to transport and deliver oxygen to other cells in the body. Cells in a child's muscles and organs need oxygen to survive, and a decrease in the number of red blood cells can cause stress on the body.

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Your child may become anemic if his body:

  • It does not produce enough red blood cells . This can happen if your diet does not contain enough iron and other nutrients (for example, iron deficiency anemia).
  • It destroys a large number of red blood cells . This type of anemia usually occurs when a child has an underlying disease or has inherited a red blood cell disorder (for example, sickle cell anemia ).
  • You lose red blood cells through bleeding (hemorrhage). This may be from an obvious loss of blood, as in the case of a heavy menstruation, or from a slow, long-term loss, perhaps in the stool (stool).

What are the common signs and symptoms of anemia?

  • Pale or sallow (yellow) skin
  • Pale cheeks and lips
  • The inside of the eyelids and nail bed (nail) have a paler pink color than normal
  • Irritability
  • Mild weakness
  • Tires easily, naps more often
  • Children who suffer from a loss of red blood cells may develop jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes) and have urine the color of tea or cola.

Children with severe anemia may suffer from additional symptoms and signs:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Fast heart rate
  • Swelling or swelling of the hands and feet
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • Restless Leg Syndrome

Children with more severe anemia may have the following signs and symptoms:

  • Shortness of breath
  • A faster heart rate
  • Swelling of the hands and feet

When children eat things that are not food

Children who lack iron in their diets may eat unusual things, such as ice, dirt, clay, and cornstarch. This behavior is known as "pica". It is not dangerous unless your child consumes something toxic like lead paint chips. The "pica" usually ends once the anemia is treated and as the child grows.

If your child has any of these symptoms, please see your pediatrician.

Even a low level of anemia can affect a child's energy, ability to focus, and to learn. Chronic iron deficiency anemia can lead to permanent and prolonged developmental impairment. In most cases, a simple blood count can diagnose anemia.

How can I prevent my child from becoming anemic?

Iron deficiency anemia and nutritional anemia can be prevented by making sure your child eats a well-balanced diet. Talk to your doctor in the case of dietary restrictions in your home as your child may require nutritional supplements to prevent anemia. 

Ways to prevent nutritional anemias:

  • Do not give your baby cow's milk until he is over one year old . Giving cow's milk before your child is ready can cause blood loss in his bowel movements and can also decrease the amount of iron that is absorbed from the intestines.
    • If you breastfeed : Your baby will have an adequate supply of iron until at least 4 months of age. By 4 months of age, a breastfed baby should take iron supplements until they are eating iron-rich complementary foods (for example, red meat or iron-fortified cereals). Talk to your pediatrician about the best foods for this purpose and how much additional iron is needed.
    • If formula feeding : Give formula that contains extra iron. Low iron formula can cause iron deficiency anemia. Read:  How to choose formula milk . 
  • Avoid giving more than two cups of cow's milk a day to children older than 12 months . Milk is low in iron and can make children feel full, reducing the amount of other iron-rich foods they can eat.
  • Feed older children a balanced diet of foods that contain iron . Many grains and cereals have extra iron (check the label to be sure). Other foods that are good sources of iron include: red meat, egg yolks, potatoes or potatoes, tomatoes, beans or legumes, molasses, and raisins. Read:  Enrich the diet with iron . 
  • Encourage the whole family to drink citrus juices or eat foods high in vitamin C to increase the body's absorption of iron. Although some vegetables contain a lot of iron, the iron in many vegetables comes in a form that is difficult for the body to absorb, but vitamin C can help! 

To prevent anemia in children with inherited red blood cell disorders:

Your pediatrician will most likely refer you to a pediatric hematologist for supportive care for your child's specific condition.

Remember ...

If your child begins to show symptoms or signs of anemia, be sure to tell the pediatrician. Also, find out if anyone else in your family has a history of anemia or easy bleeding problems. With proper treatment, your child's anemia will improve quickly.

Additional Information:

  • Enrich the diet with iron
  • Vitamin and iron supplements​
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